[131][132], Golden rice, developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), provides greater amounts of vitamin A targeted at reducing vitamin A deficiency. flex-wrap: wrap; } Moreover, it is worth mentioning that most of the studies demonstrating that GM foods are as nutritional and safe as those obtained by conventional breeding, have been performed by biotechnology companies or associates, which are also responsible of commercializing these GM plants. Plant Biotechnol J 14:510518. } Internet Explorer). } "System and Method of Producing Glucoamylases and/or Proteases." Innovation and Technology Commission (ITC), Innovation and Technology Fund (ITF). [89][90] Agriculture economists calculated that "world surplus [increased by] $240.3 million for 1996. The production titres are then further enhanced by increasing the haem pathway flux or by optimization of the culture conditions. If you have landed on this page expecting to find an article published in the Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera from 2018-2022, youre in the right place. #sign_b.sign-fixed-top{ #views_slideshow_cycle_teaser_section_landing_view-block_2, The high lipid content, high growth rate and ability to rapidly improve strains and produce co-products, without competing for arable land, make algae an exciting addition to the sustainable fuel portfolio. The use of Bacillus spp. .field--name-field-staff-image img { [222][223] According to National Agricultural Statistics Service, the states published in these tables represent 8186 percent of all corn planted area, 8890 percent of all soybean planted area, and 8193 percent of all upland cotton planted area (depending on the year). display: block; Insect Conserv Diver 5:95100. overflow:hidden; Student grant for junior researchers in the Fourth International Conference on Renewable Resources and Biorefineries (RRB4) provided by the Dutch Biotechnology Foundation (Stichting Biotechnologie, SBN), the Netherlands. Food Chem Toxicol 50:42214231. position: fixed; declare competing financial interests as the work described in this Paper is covered by a patent filed including, but not limited to, KR1020210005806, and is of commercial interest. Studies have shown that marine microorganisms exhibit unique biodegradation pathways for breaking down several organic pollutants. Food sensory evaluation of products provides an understanding of the key sensory properties that drive consumer acceptability. http://www.rothamsted.ac.uk/news-views/first-gm-oilseed-crop-produce-omega-3-fish-oils-field, http://learn.genetics.utah.edu/content/labs/pcr/, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC521913/, http://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/present-status-and-future-prospects-of-fish-vaccination-a-review-2157-7579-1000299.php?aid=70000, http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm472487.htm, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/gmf-agm/appro/aquadvantage-salmon-saumon-eng.php, http://aquafind.com/articles/Marine-Biotechnology.php, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21882941. Table 1. Science 222:476482. The importance of the ECM is vividly 19, 26 (2020). Google Scholar, Adang MJ, Brody MS, Cardineau G, Eagan N, Roush RT, Shewmaker CK, Jones A, Oakes JE, McBride KE (1993) The reconstruction and expression of a Bacillus thuringiensis cryIIIA gene in protoplasts and potato plants. Li, Z. R. et al. https://doi.org/10.1038/497024a, Gill SS, Tuteja N (2010) Reactive oxygen species and antioxidant machinery in abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants. font-size: 20px; Hasunuma, T. Microbial engineering for production of biofuels and biorefinery products, 4th A-IMBN Annual Conference, Thailand, 2012.3.1; Hasunuma, T., Kondo, A. Geneva, World Health Organization. } 69, 292297 (1990). Plant Molecular Biol 78:311321. .flexslider .flex-direction-nav a, .flexslider .flex-direction-nav a { Bang, K. R. Choi, S. Cho, D. Huccetogullari, G. B. Kim, G. Ryu and T. Yu for helpful discussions and valuable advice. display: flex; January 9, 2012. Cell Fact. [176] Syngenta has USDA approval to market a maize trademarked Enogen that has been genetically modified to convert its starch to sugar for ethanol. [185] Modifications in 2016 included switchgrass and bentgrass. ChemBioChem 11, 15171520 (2010). .block-views-blocklanding-view-block-4 .view-card img { Innovative green technology capable of recycling mixed textile waste developed by a researcher from the School of Energy and Environment (SEE) at City University of Hong Kong (CityU) and her research team has won a Gold Medal at the 46th International Exhibition of Inventions of Geneva. min-height: 593px; Cell Fact. WHO global database on vitamin A deficiency. [118][120] The trait includes a bacterial antibiotic resistance gene that provides resistance to the antibiotic kanamycin. In: Mueller-Roeber B, Kaufmann K (eds) Plant gene regulatory networks. Postgraduate Research Student Conference Travel Funds, The University of Manchester, Student Bursary, Biochemical Engineering Subject Group, the Institute of Chemical Engineer (IChemE), United Kingdom, Postgraduate Travel Grant from the Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd., United Kingdom, Doctoral Studentship, Engineering & Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), United Kingdom, Overseas Research Student Awards Scheme (ORSAS), United Kingdom, Runner Up for the Best Presentation in the Chemical Engineering Final Year Project Presentation, Department of Chemical & Materials Engineering, The University of Auckland, New Zealand, Senior Prize in Chemical and Materials Engineering (Year 3), Editorial Board member of BMC Chemical Engineering (Springer Nature) (, Guest Editor,Green Chemistry,Themed Issue: Green Biorefinery Technologies based on Waste Biomass (Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC); IF: 11.034), Guest Editor, Journal of Hazardous Materials, S.I. Pomponi, SA. [169], Yellow squash that were resistant to at first two, then three viruses were developed, beginning in the 1990s. margin: auto; Cyanobacteria (/ s a n o b k t r i. /), also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of gram-negative bacteria that obtain energy via photosynthesis.The name cyanobacteria refers to their color (from Ancient Greek (kuans) 'blue'), which similarly forms the basis of cyanobacteria's common name, blue-green algae. Gocal G (2015a) Non-transgenic trait development in crop plants using oligo-directed mutagenesis: CibusRapid Trait Development System. As of September 2013 USDA had received proposals for releasing GM rice, squash, plum, rose, tobacco, flax, and chicory. } April 9, 2013, Housing Authority Head Quarter. Natl Acad. By 2006 some weed populations had evolved to tolerate some of the same herbicides. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9452(97)00219-7, Singh M, Kumar J, Singh S, Singh VP, Prasad SM (2015) Roles of osmoprotectants in improving salinity and drought tolerance in plants: A review. https://www.intechopen.com/books/plant-genomics/advances-in-plant-tolerance-to-biotic-stresses, Osakabe K, Osakabe Y, Toki S (2010) Site-directed mutagenesis in Arabidopsis using custom-designed zinc finger nucleases. For instance, to express a gene only in rice grains and not in leaves, an endosperm-specific promoter is used. 18 million farmers grew GM crops; around 90% were small-holding farmers in developing countries.[1]. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2006.3686, Foster SJ, Park TH, Pel M, Brigneti G, Sliwka J, Jagger L, Vossen EVD, Jones JD (2009) Rpi-vnt1.1, a Tm-22 homolog from Solanum venturii, confers resistance to potato late blight. } https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1225829, Jones HD (2015) Regulatory uncertainty over genome editing. EASAC also criticizes the EU's "time-consuming and expensive regulatory framework" and said that the EU had fallen behind in the adoption of GM technologies. European Commission Horizon 2020 (WASTE-7-2015), 2016 2019. The production of biofuels and biomass from microalgae has been boosted through co-culturing techniques. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fshw.2016.04.002, Zhou J, Xin X, He Y, Chen H, Li Q, Tang X et al (2018) Multiplex QTL editing of grain-related genes improves yield in elite rice varieties. Scientists find it hard to devise treatment for viral diseases in crustaceans like shrimps because they do not possess true adaptive immune response system and they react to diseases by non-specific innate immune mechanisms. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3696, Heap I, Duke SO (2018) Overview of glyphosate-resistant weeds worldwide. ISAAA Brief No. max-width: 1200px; Health Canada. #views_slideshow_cycle_div_landing_view-block_2_0, MEDIUM, METHOD AND SYSTEM FOR CULTIVATION OFCHLORELLA PYRENOIDOSAOR ORGANISMS DERIVED FROMCHLORELLA PYRENOIDOSA, (I.S. But do they really understand the public? 8, Statistical source data of Supplementary Fig. 2, Statistical source data of Supplementary Fig. The viruses are watermelon, cucumber and zucchini/courgette yellow mosaic. } } Regulation varies in a given country depending on the intended use of each product. Of this total, the largest share (59%) went to U.S. farmers. height:0; However, most plants have anti-nutritional characteristics that are not favorable for feed utilization. [107], In 2014, the largest review yet concluded that GM crops' effects on farming were positive. In comparison with other biomass resources, microalgae has better efficiency, more convenient production, and higher content of lipid and polysaccharide that make it a flexible choice in biogas plants (Wu et al. Crop Sci 35:14511461. Biochim. https://www.who.int/nutrition/publications/micronutrients/vitamin_a_deficiency/9789241598019/en/, Wolt JD, Wang K, Yang B (2016) The regulatory status of genome-edited crops. ISAAA: Ithaca, NY. box-shadow: 0px 0px 10px 0px rgba(0,0,0,0.10); border-bottom: 1px solid #bf165e; July 3, 2014, Summer Expert Talk 2014; Lecture Theatre 4, Academic 1, City University of Hong Kong. Proc. margin-bottom: 80px; 8, 36 (2009). .block-views-blocklanding-view-block-5 .view-content { [56] The first genetically modified animal to be approved for food use was AquAdvantage salmon in 2015. Thakur, NL and AN Thakur. 17101289.9, Hu, Y.,Lin, C.S.K., Leu, S.-Y., Jing, H., Yeung, C.S. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:909930. Biology (Basel) 10, 216 (2021). Materials may be republished without alteration and not for commercial purposes with the attribution statement "This material is published by ISAAA (www.isaaa.org)" and a clickable link back to isaaa.org. This PhD project is focused on the development of high-efficiency light-driven single cell green algae (microalgae) cell lines that can produce hydrogen fuel from water as well as high-value molecules using advanced genetic plug-and play molecular biology techniques. https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/91.6.1239, Rascn-Cruz Q, Sinagawa-Garca S, Osuna-Castro JA, Bohorova N, ParedesLopez O (2004) Accumulation, assembly, and digestibility of amarantin expressed in transgenic tropical maize. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 14:4955. J Integr Plant Biol 60:8993. } [52] First sold in 1994, FlavrSavr tomato production ceased in 1997. Proficient oral and written communication skills in English and the ability to work independently and collaboratively in a multi-disciplinary and multi-cultural team are essential. Zeitschrift fr Naturforschung C 42:270278. We are currently recruiting talented and motivated students interested in pursuing PhD study in the interdisciplinary area ofwaste and biomass valorisation, which encompasses biocatalysis, fermentation and downstream processing. #sign_b.sign-fixed-top{ https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.3374, Griffiths AJF, Wessler SR, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM, Suzuki DT, Miller JH (2005) Introduction to genetic analysis. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 14:407426. [32] Since then traits including dwarfing genes and rust resistance have been introduced in that manner. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) reports every year on the total area of GM crop varieties planted in the United States. } .block-block-content5dc409f9-0abe-4d0b-92ce-228c8ffc5f5d .col-lg-4:hover img{ City University of Hong Kong was ranked 53ndin the World University Rankings, 18thin Asia, and 4thamong the world's top 50 universities under the age of 50 in the Quacquarelli Symonds (QS) survey. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.3.1156, Klmper W, Qaim M (2014) A Meta-Analysis of the Impacts of Genetically Modified Crops. ", Microinjection is used to directly inject foreign DNA into cells. Southwest Entomologist 35:417424. [181] Potatoes that produce industrially useful starches have been developed as well. Bioresour. The importance of the ECM is vividly Thus, developing crops that could withstand spraying with glyphosate would both reduce environmental and health risks, and give an agricultural edge to the farmer.[145]. This method has been applied successfully for many cultivated crops, especially monocots like wheat or maize, for which transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens has been less successful. [67] In 2011, Monsanto's DroughtGard maize became the first drought-resistant GM crop to receive US marketing approval. DeLoache, W. C. et al. [230], Europe grows relatively few genetically engineered crops[231] with the exception of Spain, where one fifth of maize is genetically engineered,[232] and smaller amounts in five other countries. Global estimates are produced by the International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications (ISAAA) and can be found in their annual reports, "Global Status of Commercialized Transgenic Crops".[1][224]. https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1382, Tabashnik BE, Finson N, Johnson MW, Moar WJ (1993) Resistance to toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. article.node--type-landing-page .highlight-events-wrapper { //padding: 0 24px; [3] This reduction in pesticide use has been ecologically beneficial, but benefits may be reduced by overuse. #views_slideshow_cycle_div_landing_view-block_2_2 { 181, 60336041 (1999). PubMed [55] As of 2011, 11 different transgenic crops were grown commercially on 395 million acres (160 million hectares) in 29 countries such as the US, Brazil, Argentina, India, Canada, China, Paraguay, Pakistan, South Africa, Uruguay, Bolivia, Australia, Philippines, Myanmar, Burkina Faso, Mexico and Spain. } content: "" body.classList.remove("has-top-margin"); margin: 0 20px; Nat Commun 8:15. https://doi.org/10.1038/nbt1319, Miller JC, Tan S, Qiao G, Barlow KA, Wang J et al (2011) A TALE nuclease architecture for efficient genome editing. BMPs include applying multiple herbicides with different modes of action, rotating crops, planting weed-free seed, scouting fields routinely, cleaning equipment to reduce the transmission of weeds to other fields, and maintaining field borders. 405, 130136 (2002). Biochem. } In: A Consultancy Study for Crop Life International, Pathhead, Midlothin, UK. [178] Besides with trees, the chemically labile lignin bonds are also very useful for cereal crops such as maize,[179][180]. Fordjour, E., Adipah, F. K., Zhou, S., Du, G. & Zhou, J. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for de novo production of L-DOPA from D-glucose. Protein Sci. 68, 49794985 (2002). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1711-4, Ariel FD, Manavella PA, Dezar CA, Chan RL (2007) The true story of the HD-Zip family. margin-bottom: 30px; Plant Biotechnol J 13:791800. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/37.1.1, Gilbert N (2013) A hard look at GM crops. Read on R.I.P Journal of Research on the Lepidoptera. In 2015, AquAdvantage salmon with growth hormone gene from Chinook salmon became the first genetically engineered fish approved for commercial use after it was proven to be safe to eat like non-GE Atlantic salmon, by the US Food and Drug Administration.8 It was also approved for commercial use in Canada in 2016.9, Medicine 148, 162-169. It was only in the middle of 20th century when scientists started to systematically navigate the oceans for medicines.1. Tian, L., Musetti, V., Kim, J., Magallanes-Lundback, M. & DellaPenna, D. The Arabidopsis LUT1 locus encodes a member of the cytochrome P450 family that is required for carotenoid epsilon-ring hydroxylation activity. [209] Refuges (i. e., fields of nontransgenic plants) adjacent to transgenic fields increases the likelihood that homozygous resistant (s/s) individuals and any surviving heterozygotes will mate with susceptible (S/S) individuals from the refuge, instead of with other individuals carrying the resistance allele. } Plant Dis 81:12311235. PubMed Central https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.103.033431, Rommens CM, Haring MA, Swords K, Davies HV (2007) The intragenic approach as a new extension to traditional plant breeding. Development of a stable semi-continuous lipid production system of an oleaginous Chlamydomonas sp. Food Chem Toxicol 95:1218. [101] The patent on the first type of Roundup Ready crop that Monsanto produced (soybeans) expired in 2014[102] and the first harvest of off-patent soybeans occurs in the spring of 2015. The trait was later added to zucchini. Zhou, K., Qiao, K. J., Edgar, S. & Stephanopoulos, G. Distributing a metabolic pathway among a microbial consortium enhances production of natural products. Synthetic scaffold systems for increasing the efficiency of metabolic pathways in microorganisms. & Lee, S. Y. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for the enhanced production of l-tyrosine. 1999. She regularly serves as an external assessor for national and international funding institutions including National Research Foundation (NRF) in Singapore, Dutch Research Council (NWO), European Science Foundation (ESF). } line-height: 1.5em; Biotechnological applications can be used to harness the potential of the marine environment for human benefit and fundamental biological progress.1, 2, 3, Marine biotechnology is the creation of products and processes from marine organisms through the application of biotechnology, molecular and cell biology, and bioinformatics. .block-views-blocklanding-view-block-2 .highlight-events-wrapper .event-item .event-date .t-start { [170], Many strains of corn have been developed in recent years to combat the spread of Maize dwarf mosaic virus, a costly virus that causes stunted growth which is carried in Johnson grass and spread by aphid insect vectors. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002990050179, Zong Y, Wang Y, Li C, Zhang R, Chen K, Ran Y, Qiu JL, Wang D, Gao C (2017) Precise base editing in rice, wheat and maize with a Cas9cytidine deaminase fusion. flex-wrap: unset; [33] Plant tissue culture and deliberate mutations have enabled humans to alter the makeup of plant genomes. April 25-27, 2013, Seminar, School of Bioscience and Bioengineering, South China University of Technology (SCUT), Guangzhou, China. doi:10.1177/0162243915598381. Kumar, A.N wastewater treatment for enhanced biomass and lipid production. Cell 162:900910. Get the most important science stories of the day, free in your inbox. Functional analysis of the beta and epsilon lycopene cyclase enzymes of Arabidopsis reveals a mechanism for control of cyclic carotenoid formation. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:956961. 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